Research Review

Engineering Immune-Compatible Organs: Genetic Modifications in Pigs for Reduced Rejection in Human Recipients  

Xiaofang Lin
Tropical Animal Medicine Center, Hainan Institute of Tropical Agricultural Resources, Sanya, 572024, Hainan, China
Author    Correspondence author
Animal Molecular Breeding, 2024, Vol. 14, No. 1   doi: 10.5376/amb.2024.14.0013
Received: 07 Jan., 2024    Accepted: 17 Feb., 2024    Published: 27 Feb., 2024
© 2024 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Lin X.F., 2024, Engineering immune-compatible organs: genetic modifications in pigs for reduced rejection in human recipients, Animal Molecular Breeding, 14(1): 106-118 (doi: 10.5376/amb.2024.14.0013)


The shortage of human organs for transplantation has driven significant advancements in xenotransplantation, particularly using genetically modified pigs. This study examines the genetic modifications in pigs aimed at reducing immune rejection in human recipients. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of porcine organs with multiple genetic modifications to overcome hyperacute rejection and improve graft survival. Key genetic alterations include the knockout of xenoantigens such as alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase and the insertion of human complement and coagulation regulatory genes. These modifications have shown promising results in preclinical and early clinical trials, with some xenografts maintaining function without signs of rejection for extended periods. The study highlights the importance of continued research to optimize genetic modifications and address remaining immunological and physiological barriers to clinical xenotransplantation.

Porcine organs; Xenotransplantation; Genetic modification; Immune rejection; CRISPR-Cas9
[Full-Text PDF] [Full-Text HTML]
Animal Molecular Breeding
• Volume 14
View Options
. PDF(1231KB)
Associated material
. Readers' comments
Other articles by authors
. Xiaofang Lin
Related articles
. Porcine organs
. Xenotransplantation
. Genetic modification
. Immune rejection
. Email to a friend
. Post a comment