The Intestinal Parasites of Bashiqa District, Nineveh Governorate, Iraq  

Bushra S. Al-Naemy1 , Sundus Al-Kalak1 , Zohair I.F. Rahemo2
1 Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Nursing , Mosul University, Mosul, Iraq
2 Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Molecular Zoology, 2012, Vol. 2, No. 6   doi: 10.5376/ijmz.2012.02.0006
Received: 29 Sep., 2012    Accepted: 29 Sep., 2012    Published: 22 Oct., 2012
© 2012 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Al-Nawmy et al., 2012, The Intestinal Parasites of Bashiqa District, Nineveh Governorate, Iraq, Intl. J. of Molecular Zoology, Vol.2, No.6, 51-54 (doi: 10.5376/ijmz.2012.02.0006)


An investigation was performed on intestinal parasites in children of Bashika District, suburb of Mosul city and 12 Km northeast of it. A total of 422 stool specimens were examined, 256 from males and 166 from females, the percentage of infection was 60.66 % and 39.33% respectively. The recovered parasites were: Entamoeba histolytica (28.2%), Giardia lamblia (37%), Hymenolepis nana (6.5%), Taenia saginata (2.5%), Ascaris lumbricoides (3.8%), Enterbius vermicularis (15.3%), Trachiuris trachura (1.2%) and Ancylostoma duodenale (5.1%). As regards the difference in gender infection: E. histolytica (14.4% in males and 8.2% in females), in G. lamblia (15.45 in males and 14.4% in females), T .saginata (2.0% in males and 5.1% in females), the nematodes 12.3% in males and 7.2% in females. As concern symptoms recorded, diarrhea was the most abundant symptom (36.5% in males and 24.3% in females),  then abstaing with abdominal pain (24.3% in males and 18.9% in females). Regarding factors complaints of parasitic infection: not washing hands before eating was the major factor in increasing parasitic infection (27.7% in males and 30.2% in females), then come not washing vegetables (22.5% in males and 20.9% in females) in addition to other socio-economic factors and bad infrastructure of most of the district villages.

Parasites; Intestine; Bashiqa-Iraq

Although there is a distinct development for medical services in diagnosing the diseases in human population in different regions of the World, parasitic diseases still represent challenges for Health centers especially for developing and poor countries (Agi, 1995; Sayyari et al., 2005; Roberts et al., 2009). Furthermore, the specific geographical and socio-economic status of the population of the 3rd world may have the major effect in existance of parasitic disease, among other medical issues (Dieng, 1999).

The importance of parasites is due to its distribution in large population especially in children in most of the developing and poor countries, possibly because these parasites have easy way of transmission such as Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Ascaris lumbricoides, whip worm Trichuris trichura, dwarf worm, Hymenolepis nana, and usually infection happen via food and drunk, polluted vegetables by heavy water, as in most regions of the world (Dieng, 1999; Esfandiari et al., 1995).

The incidence of parasitic worms differ from country to country, in some reports there are 100 million infection by A. lumbricoides and 900 million by hookworms such as A. duodenale and 500 million by T. trichura mostly in poor countries (Tchuem, 2003).

In some studies carried out in China, revealed that 47% of those investigated were infected by the pin worm, Enterbius vermicularis, and 18% by T. trichura, and 17.2% by Taenia saginata (Xulq, 1995).

Study the epidemiology of parasite can be considered the first step to put it under control, thus this represent the preliminary investigation about intestinal parasites in Bashika one of the important suburb of Mosul city, famous of olive cultivation and manufacturing pickles, situated in north-east of Mosul, 12 km from Mosul city (36o27'N 23o21'E 36.45oN 43.35oE ).

1 Results and Discussion
Among 422 stool samples examined, 256 of males and the incidence of infection was 60.66%, and among 166 stool samples taken from females the incidence of infection was 39.33%. This means that males are more suitable to parasitic infection may be because they are spending more time outdoor in road and streets playing or even working.

Table 1 showing types of intestinal parasites recorded including protozoans and helminths. High percentage of infection was by Giardia lamblia (37%), followed by Entamoeba histolytica (28.2%), as concern helminths high infection rate by E. vermicularis (15.3%), then H. nana (6.4%), A. duodenale (5.1%), then A. lumbricoides (3.8%), then the cestode T. saginata (2.5%), then, T. trichura (1.2%). It is well known that G. lamblia and E. histolytica directly infect persons along foods and water, G. lamblia can stay in water for two months and it is resistance to chlorine used in drinking water sterilization (Roberts et al., 2009). Noteworthy may there are different strains of Giardia in different hosts (Mahmud et al., 2001). However, E. histolytica can be widespread even in very tidy and hygienic persons, new strains may be arising in addition to high resistance of well feed persons and symptomless persons and spread of cysts due to faceal contamination as chlorination of water is not sufficient to kill cysts of E. histolytica (Hawker et al., 2005).

Table 1
The frequency of intestinal parasite

Table 2
showing number of identified parasites according the host sex, percentage of infection by E. histolytica was 14.4% in males and 8.2% in females respectively. The percentage of G. lamblia infection was high, 15.4% in males and 14.4% in females while infection with T. saginata was 2.06% in males and 5.1% in females. Infection rate with nematodes, E. vermicularis was 12.3% in males and 7.2% in females respectively.

Table 2 Percentage and prevalence of intestinal parasites in stool examination children according to sex

High infection rate with protozoans especially G. lamblia may be due to its short life cycle and transmission via polluted food and the exposed food saled by portable saler especially sweets, grapes, date palms, other fruits and which attract numerous flies.

As concern intestinal nematodes, E. vermicularis infection rate was 15.3%. Usually, infection with this worm might lead to anal itching and restlessness especially in children. Similar results were obtained by Karrar and Rahim (1995).

From this study it is revealed that the infection rate with the H. nana was 6.4% which is close to the results of Al-Abiady (1998).

As regards infection with A. duedenale the prevalence was 5.1% this is very close to the results of Al-Kajkajy (1989) but not in coincidence with those of Agi (1995). Such low infection rate may be because the eggs of hookworms need special environmental condition such as humid soil, partial darkness, soil rich in nutrients. It is worth mentioning that, using chemical fertilizer in agriculture instead of faeces might lead to inhibition of eggs growth which lead to reducing infection. Furthermore wearing shoes by the farmers during performing their job instead of naked feet might also be considered a factor reducing worm infection.

Concerning, T. trichura the infection rate was 1.2% such rate is similar to results of Al-Naemy (2004), El Kchaoi et al (2004), but it differs from those of Al-Kalak and Rahemo (2012). Eggs of this worm need certain environmental condition such as warm and wet soil and partial darkness.

If the above results were compared to a recently published research (Al-Kalak and Rahemo, 2012), after three years of investigation, all the percentages of nematodes parasitic infection was lower than those found by them, keeping in mind that Bashika is a suburb of Nineveh governorate, possibly Bashiqa is much evolved economically and socially than other Nineveh governorate suburbs, as such has lower parasitic infection.

In Table 3 type of symptoms are demonstrated which are due to the infection of intestinal parasites, diarrhea is the most common symptoms associated with intestinal parasites, as the infection rate in males was 36.5% while in females was 24.3% which are considered high percentages. It is well known that diarrhea is due to irritation mucosa lining of the intestine which lead into malabsorption and also for water which lead into changing of stool texture (Chunge et al., 1991). Abdominal pain also occurred especially in males (19.5%), and some time constabation in males. Sometime other symptoms appeared accompanied by intestinal parasite infection such as abdominal enlargement, gaseous, acute dysentery, offensive odour of stool such as putrefied eggs, Similar symptoms were recorded by Al-Daoody and Rahemo (2002; 2003 a; 2003 b) when studied parasitic infection in both school children and food handling workers in Nineveh governorate.

Table 3
Percentage of complaints versus parasitic infections

In Table 4, a demonstration of some unhygienic habits which are accompanied by intestinal parasitic infection such as non washing hands before eating, not washing vegetables, not drinking clean water less educated parents whom are not giving advice to their children in addition to weak infrastructure of villages especially remote one. In addition water shortage in theses villages lead peoples to transport it in contaminated containers and bad storing especially in poor villages. Similar observations were concluded by Shahatta and Al-Debesh (2007), when investigated parasitic infection in Damascus and its suburbs in Syria. 

Table 4 Percentage and factors complaints of parasitic infections according sex

2 Materials and Methods

A total of 422 samples of children stool were collected in ages between 6~12 year from Bashika district and its villages from school public and from houses from January 2011 till December 2012. Smears were examined in physiological salines stained with Lugols iodine. Stool samples were also preserved in Plastic containers with perfect lids containing 10 mL 10% formaline as suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO, 1991).

Information were gathered from patients giving samples such as gender, symptoms, source of pollution, these information were recorded in questionare form then analyzed.

Agi P.L., 1995, Pattern of infection of intestinal parasites in Segbama community of the Niger Delta, Nigeria, West African J.Med, 14(1): 39-42
Al-Abiady N.A.K.,1988, The correlation of helminthic ova and protozoan cysts in human and dust in and around houses in some villages around Mosul. M. Sc. thesis, university of Medicine, University of Mosul, pp.1-85
Al-Daoody A.A., and Rahemo Z.I.F., 2002, Epidemiology of intestinal parasites among food handlers in neinava governorate, Rafidain J. sci. 13(1): 1-9
Al-Daoody A.A., and Rahemo Z.I.F., 2003 a, Prevalence of intestinal helminths infection among pubils o a number of primary schools in Neinava governorate. Rafidain J. Sci, 14(2): 32-40.
Al-Daood A.A., and Rahemo Z.I.F., 2003 b, Prevalence of Intestinal parasites among pupils of a numbber of primary schools in Neinava Governorate. Rafidain J. Sc., 14(3): 20-28
Al-Kalak S., and Rahemo Z.I.F., 2012, Prevalence of intestinal nematodes in Neinava Governorate, Iraq, International J. Molec. Zool., 2(4): 39-44
Al-Naemy B.S., 2004, An epidemiological study on intestinal parasites in the village of Shrekhan, Mosul. Al-Kadisia J., 9(4): 1-11 
Chunge R.N., Karumba P.N., Nagelkerke N., Kaleli N., Wamwea M., Mutiso N., Andala E.O., and Kinoti S.N., 1991, Intestinal parasites in a rural community in Kenya: cross-sectional surveys with emphasis on prevalence, incidence, duratioin of infections and polyparasitism. East Afr. Med. J., 68(2): 112-123
Dieng Y, Tandia A.A., Wane A.T., Gaye O., Diop E.H., Diallo S., 1999, Intestinal parasitosis in the inhibitans of suburbam zone in which the ground water in polluted bynitrates of fecal origin (Yeumbeul, Sengegal), J. Sante, 9(6): 351-356
El Kichaoi A.Y., Abd Rabou A.F.N., Sharif F.A., and El-Amssi H.M., 2004, changing trends in frequency of intestinal parasites in Gaza, 1995-2000. J. Islamic Univ. Gaza., 12(2): 121-129
Esfandiari A., Thadepalli H., and Gill G., 1995, Prevalence of the enteric parasites in a selected community in Los Angelus Country, Indian J. Med. Microbiol., 13(1): 22-25
Hawker J., Begg N., Blair I., Reintjes R., and Weinberge J., 2001, Communicible disease control handbook, Blackwell Science Publishers, Oxford, England,
Karrar Z.A., and Rahim F.A., 1995, Prevalence and risk factors of parasitic infections among under-five Sudanese children, A community based study,East African Medical Journal, 72(2): 103-109
Mahmud M.A., Chappell C.L., and Hossain M.M., 2001, Impact of breast-feeding on Giardia lamblia infections in Bilbeis, Egypt, Amer. J. Trop. Med. And Hygiene., 65(3): 257-260.
Najary O.F., 2008, A study on occurrence of intestinal parasites in children consulting private clinics suffering from digestive disorders in Lathikia city, J Children Gate., 10: 143-149
Roberts L.S., Janovy J., Scmidt G.D., Larry, S., 2009, Roberts foundations of parasitology, 8th Ed.McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York
Sayyari A.A., Imanzadeh F., Bagheri Yazd S.A., Karam H., and Yaghoobi M., 2005, Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in the islamic republic of Iran, Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 11(3): 65-70
Shahatta, S., and Al-Debesh M.K., 2007, The occurrence of intestinal parasites in school pupilsin Damascus and its suburbs and factors affection that’s, J. of lab. Diagnosis, 4(7): 9-29
Tchuem T.L., 2003, Soil transmitted helminth infections among school children in Loum, Cameron. Trop.Medicine and International Health, 8(11): 975-986 
WHO, 1991, Basic laboratory methods in Medical Parasitology. World Health Organization, Geneva, 1-90

Wongstitwilairoong W., Srijan A., Serichantolergs O., Fukuda C.D., Mcdaniel P., Bodhidatta L., and Mason C.J., 2007, Intestinal parasitic infections among pre-school children in Sangkhlaburi, Thailand, The American J. Trop. Med. and Hyg., 76(2): 345-350 

Xulq L., 1995, Soil transmitted helminthiasis: nation wide survey in China. Bull World Health Org, 73(4): 507-513   

International Journal of Molecular Zoology
• Volume 2
View Options
. PDF(103KB)
. FPDF(win)
. Online fPDF
Associated material
. Readers' comments
Other articles by authors
. Bushra S. Al-Naemy
. Sundus Al-Kalak
. Zohair I.F. Rahemo
Related articles
. Parasites
. Intestine
. Bashiqa-Iraq
. Email to a friend
. Post a comment