Research Report

A Review on the Occipital Area Morphology in Nyctereutes Procyonoides cancrivora--Evidence for Developmental Instability?  

Samuel O.M1,2 , Olopade J.O1
1 Department of Veterinary Anatomy University of Ibadan, Nigeria
2 Department of Veterinary Anatomy University of Agriculture Makurdi, Nigeria
Author    Correspondence author
Animal Molecular Breeding, 2016, Vol. 6, No. 2   doi: 10.5376/amb.2016.06.0002
Received: 22 Jan., 2016    Accepted: 01 Feb., 2016    Published: 22 Apr., 2016
© 2016 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Samuel O.M. and Olopade J.O., 2016, A Review on The Occipital Area Morphology in Nyctereutes Procyonoides cancrivora)–Evidence For Developmental Instability?, Animal molecular Breeding, 6(2): 1-6 (doi: 10.5376/amb.2016.06.0002)


The occipital bone and the foramen magnum are salient structures of the skull; which have been widely studied in various species due to variability associated with their morphology and the clinico-paleontological significance of related ‘anomalies’. The aim of this study was to discuss and review literatures on the development, form and construction of the structures in tropical raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides cancrivora) a species noted as most variably sized. Relevant aspects of predisposition to and diagnosis of neuro-pathologies related to the occipital area as well as species variations in composite architecture of the bone and foramen magnum in evolutionary perspectives. This review postulates elements of developmental instability exist with predisposition to dysmorphologies in the occipital area of this species and suggests that this investigation may be of value in canalization, ontogenetic variability and population studies and serve as important research data in cranio-facial modeling for species anthropometry and taxonomic classifications.


Developmental Anatomy; developmental instability; Occipital bone; embryology; morphology; N.p. cancrivora
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